It all begin s earlier, at school. Evidence suggests that early patterns. At school between 10 and 25% are involved as perpetrators and victims. In domestic violence it is 30% of women who are subject to some negative bullying. At school it is important to show kids that hurting others or excluding or isolating them is not normal. If they are not reminded of that they don’t have any idea that it is not socially acceptable. If adults in anger management aren’t reminded of that then they don’t think their actions are out of the normal.
At school there are three types; the manipulative who know their actions wound others, the next are the thugs who use power as a way of authority. Men do that too. Finally those who bully to get approval of others. Quite likely they become the co-dependent raging man later on.
The social media has changed things as kids can gossip about each other out of school hours. We see texting or constant phone messaging as a way of harassment later on. It is all about power, the imbalance and the motivation to keep that power imbalance. Kids use it to get ahead , adults use it to stay on top.
There is no upside to school bullying, it leaves permanent marks on victims. They generally don’t become resilient, they hurt, they commit suicide. The same is true for adults the victims get depressed. Seeing consequences is a good way to get adult’s attention.